Study of the Structural, Optical, and Morphological Properties of SnO2 Nanofilms under the Influence of Gamma Rays

Main Article Content

Ola alramadany
Basim Khalaf Rejah


This study reports the fabrication of tin oxide (SnO2) thin films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The effect of 60Co (300, 900, and 1200 Gy) gamma radiation on the structural, morphological, and optical features is systematically demonstrated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet-visible light analysis (UV-Vis), respectively In XRD tests, the size of the crystallites decreased from 45.5 to 40.8 nm for the control samples and from 1200 Gy to 60Co for the irradiated samples. Using FESEM analysis, the particle diameter revealed a similar trend to that attained using XRD; in particular, the average diameters were 93.8 and 79.9 nm for the samples mentioned above. A similar profile was observed for the AFM analysis in which an increase in the radiation dose from 300 to 1200 Gy resulted in a decrease in the RMS values from 74.6 to 32.25 nm. Contrariwise, the calculated optical band gap demonstrated an increasing profile where optical band gaps of 3.08 and 3.18 eV were acquired for control and samples irradiated with 900 Gy. However, the attained optical band gap was further increased to 3.24 eV due to the 60Co gamma radiation increment to 1200 Gy.


Article Details

How to Cite
alramadany O, Rejah B. Study of the Structural, Optical, and Morphological Properties of SnO2 Nanofilms under the Influence of Gamma Rays. IJP [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 1 [cited 2023 Sep. 26];21(3):1-8. Available from:
Author Biography

Basim Khalaf Rejah, Department of Physics, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq




E. Y. Salih, M. B. A. Bashir, A. H. Rajpar, I. A. Badruddin, and G. Bahmanrokh, Microelec. Engin. 258, 111758 (2022).

F. Salleh, R. Usop, N. S. Saugi, E. Y. Salih, M. Mohamad, H. Ikeda, M. F. M. Sabri, M. K. Ahmad, and S. M. Said, Appl. Surf. Sci. 497, 143736 (2019).

C. Sun, J. Yang, M. Xu, Y. Cui, W. Ren, J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and B. Liang, Chem. Engin. J. 427, 131564 (2022).

A.-H. K. Iltaif, A. A. Jabor, R. H. Mukalaf, M. A. Abood, and F. G. Khalad, Bagh. Sci. J. 8, 473 (2011).

M. B. A. Bashir, A. H. Rajpar, E. Y. Salih, and E. M. Ahmed, Nanomat. 13, 802 (2023).

S. K. Sen, M. Noor, M. A. Al Mamun, M. S. Manir, M. Matin, M. Hakim, S. Nur, and S. Dutta, Optic. Quant. Elect. 51, 1 (2019).

S. M. Ali, M. Algarawi, S. U.-D. Khan, and S. Aldawood, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Proces. 122, 105474 (2021).

S. Yasmin and M. Sayyed, Optik 272, 170218 (2023).

O. Agar, M. Sayyed, F. Akman, H. Tekin, and M. Kaçal, Nucl. Engin. Tech. 51, 853 (2019).

R. Gupta, R. Kumar, R. Chauhan, and S. Chakarvarti, Vacuum 148, 239 (2018).

A. Darwish, S. A. Issa, and M. El-Nahass, Synth. Met. 215, 200 (2016).

A. Holmes-Siedle and L. Adams, Handbook of Radiation Effects (USA, Oxford University Press, 2002).

H. S. Isfahani, S. M. Abtahi, M. A. Roshanzamir, A. Shirani, and S. M. Hejazi, Bull. Engin. Geo. Envir. 78, 4589 (2019).

S. A. Issa, M. Sayyed, M. Zaid, and K. Matori, Resul. Phys. 9, 206 (2018).

K. Kaur, K. Singh, and V. Anand, Nucl. Engin. Des. 285, 31 (2015).

A. Kumar, Rad. Phys. Chem. 136, 50 (2017).

A. B. Selçuk, S. B. Ocak, and Ö. F. Yüksel, Nucl. Instru. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. A: Accel. Spectro. Detec. Assoc. Equip. 594, 395 (2008).

N. Lavanya, C. Sekar, A. Anithaa, N. Sudhan, K. Asokan, A. Bonavita, S. Leonardi, and G. Neri, Nanotech. 27, 385502 (2016).

K. Abhirami, R. Sathyamoorthy, and K. Asokan, Rad. Phys. Chem. 91, 35 (2013).

H. Wasly, A. El-Sadek, S. Elnobi, and A. A. Abuelwafa, Euro. Phys. J. Plus 137, 1 (2022).

S. G. Khalil, M. A. Ameen, and N. J. Jubier, Bagh. Sci. J. 8, 1 (2011).

N. Rani and N. Jaggi, Rad; Phys. Chem. 201, 110465 (2022).

S. Tajudin, A. A. Sabri, M. A. Aziz, S. Olukotun, B. Ojo, and M. Fasasi, Nucl. Engin. Tech. 51, 1633 (2019).

M. Souli, C. Nefzi, Z. Seboui, A. Mejri, R. Vidu, and N. Kamoun-Turki, Mater. Sci. Semicon. Proces. 83, 50 (2018).

M. B. A. Bashir, E. Y. Salih, A. H. Rajpar, G. Bahmanrokh, and M. F. M. Sabri, J. Micromech. Microengin. 32, 085006 (2022).

N. Papež, A. Gajdoš, R. Dallaev, D. Sobola, P. Sedlak, R. Motuz, A. Nebojsa, and L. Grmela, Appl. Surf. Sci. 510, 145329 (2020).

Y. Areerob, C. Hamontree, P. Sricharoen, N. Limchoowong, S. Laksee, W.-C. Oh, and K. Pattarith, RSC advan. 12, 15427 (2022).

S. Prayogi and Z. Zainuddin, Tri Dasa Mega J. Nucl. Reac. Tech. 25, 9 (2023).

H. Abdullah, H. Al-Taay, M. Khalaf, H. Oleiwi, and A. Rahma, in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing, 2021, p. 012074.

S. O. Abdulghani, E. Y. Salih, and A. S. Mohammed, Mat. Chem. Phys. 303, 127859 (2023).

B. Bathula, T. R. Gurugubelli, J. Yoo, and K. Yoo, Catal. 13, 765 (2023).

N. M. Hadi and K. A. Ammar, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing, 2020, p. 072101.

Z. Zhang, M. Xu, X. Ruan, J. Yan, J. Yun, W. Zhao, and Y. Wang, Ceram. Intern. 43, 3443 (2017).

A. Alhuthali, M. El-Nahass, A. Atta, M. Abd El-Raheem, K. M. Elsabawy, and A. Hassanien, J. Lumin. 158, 165 (2015).

E. Y. Salih, M. B. A. Bashir, A. H. Rajpar, and I. A. Badruddin, Ceram. Intern. 48, 9965 (2022).

S. Kumar, Vacuum 182, 109725 (2020).

C. Ke, W. Zhu, J. Pan, and Z. Yang, Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, S306 (2011).

J. Hassan, Advan. Mat. Res. 1175, 47 (2023).

E. Y. Salih, A. Ramizy, O. Aldaghri, M. F. M. Sabri, N. Madkhali, T. Alinad, K. H. Ibnaouf, and M. H. Eisa, Nanomat. 12, 1477 (2022).

R. Ponte, E. Rauwel, and P. Rauwel, Material, 16, 4339 (2023).

J. Gong, Y. Cui, F. Li, and M. Liu, Small Sci. 3, 2200108 (2023).

V. Kumar, S. K. Sharma, T. Sharma, and V. Singh, Optic. Mat. 12, 115 (1999).

A. Dolgonos, T. O. Mason, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, J. Sol. Stat. Chem. 240, 43 (2016).

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, and H. Hosono, Phys. Stat. Sol. 206, 860 (2009).

M. Pervez, M. Mia, S. Hossain, S. Saha, M. Ali, P. Sarker, M. K. Hossain, M. Matin, M. Hoq, and M. Chowdhury, Optic. 162, 140 (2018).

J. Mangaiyarkkarasi, V. Meenakumari, and N. Thenmozhi, Sādhanā 48, 86 (2023).

N. K. Abdalameer, Advan. Nat. Appl. Sci. 11, 357 (2017).

K. A. Aadim and M. A. Essa, J. Coll. Educ. 3, 109 (2019).

S. Sarangi, G. K. Pradhan, and D. Samal, J. Allo. Comp. 762, 16 (2018).

R. Narzary, B. Dey, L. Chouhan, S. Kumar, S. Ravi, and S. Srivastava, Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proces. 142, 106477 (2022).